Uterine Cancer Treatment at World Class Hospitals in India
Uterine Cancer is often diagnosed when a woman who is having symptoms and underwent uterine biopsy or D&C. Diagnosis is often followed by surgery to treat and find out the stage of the cancer.
This operation includes removing the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries (total hysterectomy bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or TH/BSO). Lymph nodes from the pelvis and around the aorta may also be removed and examined for cancer spread. Pelvic washings may be done, too. The tissues removed at surgery are examined under a microscope to see how far the cancer has spread (the stage). Depending on the stage of the cancer, other treatments, such as radiation and/or chemotherapy may be recommended.
For some women who still want to be able to get pregnant, surgery may be put off for a time and other treatments tried instead.
If the cancer has spread outside the uterus, a different surgery may be planned. If the cancer has spread to the inside of the liver, the lungs, or other organs, surgery may not be helpful, and so chemotherapy or other treatments may be used instead.
Treatment Options available for Uterine Cancer at Top Cancer Hospitals in India
- Conization : Conization, also called a cone biopsy, is a procedure that is used to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix and cervical canal. A pathologist will view the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells. This type of surgery may be used to diagnose or treat a cervical condition.
- Total Hysterectomy : A Total Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that is used to remove the uterus, including the cervix.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells, usually by stopping the cancer cells’ ability to grow and divide. Systemic chemotherapy is delivered through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is given by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer with medication. A chemotherapy regimen (schedule) usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time.
Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells. A doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is called a radiation oncologist. A radiation therapy regimen (schedule) usually consists of a specific number of treatments given over a set period of time. The most common type of radiation treatment is called external-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation given from a machine outside the body.
Hormone therapy is used to slow the growth of uterine cancer cells. Hormone therapy for uterine cancer involves the sex hormone progesterone, given in a pill form which reduces the amount of the hormone estrogen in a woman’s body by stopping tissues and organs other than the ovaries from producing it. Hormone therapy may be used for women who cannot have surgery or radiation therapy or in combination with other types of treatment.
Uterine Cancer: Diagnosis
Pelvic examination: The doctor feels the uterus, vagina, ovaries, and rectum to check for any unusual findings. A Pap test, often done with a pelvic examination, is primarily used to check for cervical cancer. Sometimes a Pap test may find abnormal glandular cells, which are caused by uterine cancer.
Biopsy:The removal of tissue to look for cancer cells is a biopsy. A thin tube is inserted through the vagina into your uterus. Your doctor uses gentle scraping and suction to remove samples of tissue. A pathologist examines the tissue under a microscope to check for cancer cells. In most cases, a biopsy is the only sure way to tell whether cancer is present.
Dilation and Curettage (D&C): A D&C is a procedure to remove tissue samples from the uterus. A woman is given anesthesia during the procedure to block the awareness of pain. A D&C is often done in combination with a hysteroscopy so the doctor can view the lining of the uterus during the procedure. During a hysteroscopy, the doctor inserts a thin, lighted flexible tube through the cervix into the vagina and uterus.
After endometrial tissue has been removed, during a biopsy or D&C, the sample is checked for cancer cells, endometrial hyperplasia, and other conditions.
Transvaginal ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to create a picture of internal organs. In a transvaginal ultrasound, an ultrasound wand is inserted into the vagina and aimed at the uterus to obtain the pictures. If the endometrium looks too thick, the doctor may decide to perform a biopsy (see above).
Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan: A CT scan creates a 3-dimensional picture of the inside of the body using x-rays taken from different angles. A computer combines these images into a detailed, cross-sectional view that shows any abnormalities or tumors. A CT scan can be used to measure the tumor’s size. Sometimes, a special dye called a contrast medium is given before the scan to provide better detail on the image. This dye can be injected into a patient’s vein or given as a liquid to drink.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI uses magnetic fields, not x-rays, to produce detailed images of the body. MRI can be used to measure the tumor’s size. A special dye called a contrast medium is given before the scan to create a clearer picture. This dye is injected into a patient’s vein. This is particularly useful for detailed images if the treatment option is mainly hormone management (see Treatment Options). MRI is often used in women with low-grade cancer to see how far the cancer has grown into the wall of the uterus. Knowing this can help determine whether a woman’s fertility can be preserved.
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